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TECHNOLOGY OF WET GRAIN


In the year 1917 the British scientists found out that the nutritional value of grain is higher if the moisture of the grain ranges between 35 and 40%. In the late 60th a special way of processing and storage of grain with this moister was developed. Thanks to steadily growing costs for energy by grain drying (mainly of fodder grain), this technology has become interesting also today. This technology prevents germination and preserve the value of the feed.

ADVANTAGES OF THE HARVEST OF WET GRAIN USING ROmiLL MACHINES 
  • The harvest can proceed in earlier periods, by higher moisture levels and is less dependent on weather conditions, without rising costs
  • Prolonged harvest period - more efficient use of harvesters
  • The nutrition value of wet silaged feed enhances digestibility and ensures better utilisation of energy, and thus also production effectivity
  • Better health condition of milking cows, better efficiency
  • Increased intake of feed by animals
  • High level of feed hygiene
  • Optimizing of the starch ratio in rumen and small inwww.nes - decrease of rumen acidosis
  • Structure of feed can be adjusted according to the required coarseness both for cattle and for monogasters
  • Reduced requirements for transport by harvest
  • Growing and harvest of grains and maize in worse climatic conditions
  • Storage of feed without costs for construction


ECONOMICS - EXAMPLE FROM THE PRACTICAL EXPERIENCE
Comparison of the method of wet grain and classical way of harvest of maize with drying:

Input parameters:


- Yield: 10 t/ha
- Harvest moisture of grain 35% and 28% 
- Costs of harvesting using a picking thresher: 70 €/ha
- Transportation by vehicle – 13-ton-tractor semi-trailers, price: 1,5 €/km
- Transport distance of 10 km: field to facility; 10 km: drying plant to facility 
- Drying: 1,3 €/tonne and percentage point of moisture
- Grinding of dry grain: 1,- €/tonne
- Chemical preservatives: 4,- €/tonne of mass
- Crushing by a ROmiLL M2: 6,- €/tonne of material



Drying of harvested grain with 35% moisture content
Drying
Drying of harvested grain with 28% moisture content
Drying
Crumbling of wet grain with 30 - 40% moisture content
Quantity of the mass harvested from 100 ha
1 000 t
1 000 t
1 000 t
Harvest by a picking thresher
 7 000 €
7 000 €
 7 000 €
Crushing by ROmiLL M2      6 000,- €
 Acid + cover plastic      4 300,- €
aTrnsport from field to clamp      2 310,- €
Transport from field to dryer  2 310,- €  2 310,- €  
 Dryin of maize up to 14% of moisture  27 300,- €  18 200,- €  
 Transport from dryer to silo  2 310,- €  2 310,- €   
 Grinding of dry maize  1 000,- €  1 000,- €  
 Costs for storage of dry maize  not calculated  not calculated  
 Higher used energy of wet grain      not calculated
 Costs per ton of harvested material  40,- €  31,- €  20,- €
 In total for 1 000 tons (approx. 100 ha)  39 920,- €  30 810,- €  19 610,- €


   

THE HARVEST OF MAIZE CAN BE CARRIED OUT AS:


Harvest of grain (drying)
Silage - GPS (Ganzpflanzenschrot) - whole cut green plant harvested in milk wax up to wax grain maturity. The content of nitrogen substances and of energy due to the whole grains is relatively high
Split harvest - way of harvest of maize for silage. The harvest of cob (eventually also leaves) and straw is split. 
Split harvest - way of harvest of maize for silage. The harvest of cob (eventually also leaves) and straw is split.
    LKS (Leiskolbenschrot) - cobs with leaves are silaged
    CCM (Corn Cob Mix) - silaged gritt of cobs without leaves
    WET GRAIN - only grain without cobs and leaves harvested with moisture of 30-40 %



METHOD OF HARVEST OF WET MAIZE
The crop-plant that can influence the economy of pigs and cattle keeping in significant way is maize. Thanks to the possibility that the wet grain maize can be harvested, crushed and stored, the maize belongs to the one of the most efficient crop. Compared to drying, the costs for its processing are inconsiderable, and at the same time the higher amount of the high productive feed can be gained from the seeded area than from the fields with wheat or barley.
  • The harvest of grain maize is carried out at higher moisture than by traditional harvest of grain. The most ideal maturity is at the grain moisture of 35-40%. After harvesting, crushing and application of acid follow. Also the biological preserving agents can be used; these are, however, less stable by long-term storing of the feed, mainly in warm spring and summer weather. The silage bag is the best way to store the processed material.
  • It is possible to store the feed also in silage pits. The large dimensions is here however disadvantage as with a smaller daily feed amount, the material is not taken along the whole width of the silage pit and the uncovered untaken layer of feed may oxidize. The possibility of contamination of the feed in the silage pit, mainly with soil during filling and compaction, is another negative aspect. Therefore, the most reliable storage is in already mentioned silage bag.
  • From the nutritional point of view, it is the high-energy silage feed which is suitable especially for high-milking cows. Compared to dry grain maize, it has very high – up to 98% - digestibility.
  • From the economical point of view, this method is a way to reduce the costs for the feed production. This concerns mainly those farms which do not produce the feed mixtures themselves and are forced to buy the contracting work of drying and grinding of maize. Compared to the harvest of the dry grain maize, the reduction of production cost may reach up to 20 €/t including the price of the silage bag.
  • The current system of growing of grain maize enables its real growing in the areas in the altitude of 650 m. On condition of keeping the agronomical practices and choosing the right hybrid, the yield can reach around 9 t of pure grain per ha also in this altitude.
  • In addition, not less important factor is the fact that the risk of unfavourable influence of weather is reduced and the earlier harvest creates better possibilities to keep the agricultural time limits for seeding of winter grain than by harvesting maize for grain.
  • The significant advantage is the chemical way of preservation which is based on immediate fall of pH and blocking of negative epiphytical microflora of the feed. The amount of yeast, germs is minimized and the milk fermentation starts which is however inhibited by chemical preservation. By the reduced fermentation process, the feed retains a part of the best-quality energy in the form of water-soluble sugars. Thanks to chemical treatment the aerobic stability is high also in the warm summer months.
  • The main benefit of this method for the farms consists in the field of animal nutrition. The treated grain contains, besides so-called by-pass energy, also water-soluble sugars and simply obtainable energy which is absent in the most of the feed mixtures and is able to utilize soluble and fast-degradable nitrogenous substances. Utilisation of the fast energy allows higher productive efficiency of the feed batches and as a result also the efficiency of animals.
  • The method of wet grain is also economical as the grain must not be dried and transported for further processing.
 
Advantages of using the method for wet grain maize
  • In our geographical latitude maize is not a common crop used for pig nutrition. The reason does not lie in the worst quality than by other grain crops but first of all in the higher price. The nutrients in maize are the most expensive ones compared to wheat or barley. However, this is valid for maize with the standard level of dry matter.
  • The situation is different for the grain maize with higher moisture. Its lower price is a result of significant savings of costs for drying, but also of savings of costs for preserving materials based on propionic acid that inhibit moulding. The lower price is also influenced by the higher yield of new hybrids. The technology maturity of the maize is with the dry matter of 60%, the ideal maturity from the point of view of preservation ranges between 30-35% of moisture content.
  • The area of possible use of this technology has grown thanks to not only that the grain is harvested with higher moisture, but also due to a significant progress in genetics. Nowadays there is available wide range of maize hybrids for this purpose in the Czech Republic. This fact together with the gradual global warming has created the possibility to grow and harvest grain maize also in those regions in the Czech Republic, where it used to be a problem a few years ago.
  • Current maize hybrids and lower requested harvest dry matter enable to use this technology in the altitudes above 500 m. Using this technology is most advantageous not only in the maize regions where the hectare yield is around 9 t, but mainly in beet regions where the weather is more rainy. The yields reach even over 12 t/ha, however growing of maize with the standard dry matter would be problematic in those regions. Another advantage is shortening of a vegetation period, which influences usage of more helpful seeding procedures in positive way.